11 03 2008

Determiners (belirteçler) nedir?

İsimden önce gelen ve onu niteleyen kelimelerdir. Sıfatın bir alt dalı olarak da incelenirler. Eğer ismi niteleyen bir sıfat veya sıfat grubu varsa onun da önüne geçerler; yani isim ve sıfat arasına girmezler.
? a wall ?a big wall ? a very big wall
Ancak asla yan yana kullanılmazlar.Yani bir determiner bir diğerini niteleyemez.
? Some of my friends, some of the friends (not some the friends veya some my friends)
Beşe ayrılırlar:
Articles : a/an, the
Possessives : my, your, his, her, its, your, our, their
Demonstratives : this, that, these, those
Quantifiers :
Modifiers and others:
A/AN(Indefinite article) ( tekil ve sayılabilen isimleri belirtir)
1. a ve an okunuşa göre belirlenir. Araya sıfat girerse onun okunuşu esas alınır. a baby, a university, a European
an apple, an hour, an MP, an old man
2. just for singular and countable a milk (Yanlış) ? eğer a bottle of milk kastetilmediyse
3. nonspecific (özel olmayan-herhangi bir) ? I need a book.
4. at the first mentioning
(ilk bahsediş) ? They live in a flat. The flat is very expensive.
? The sun was hot, so he bought an ice cream.
? There are books on the table. (plural)
? There is tea in the bag. (uncountable)
5. one example of a class (tüm sınıfı temsilen) ? A dog needs exercise. (=Dogs needs exercise)
6. to say what ST/ SB is
(bir şeyin/birisinin ne olduğunu beyan için) ? Bill is a doctor. (profession)
? I am a student.
? A dog is an animal.
? I am an idealist.
? Are you a good driver?
? That was a bomb.
? Jill is a really nice person.
7. Exclamation (Ünlem)
Eğer isim tekil ve sayılabilen ise. ? What a hot day! (Ne sıcak bir gün)
? It was such a long gueue! (O kadar uzun bir kuyruktu ki!)
? What silly boys! (Ne kadar aptal çocuklar!)
In certain phrases of speed, ratio, frequency etc. (sıklık ve miktar belirtilerinde) ? They cost £25 a kilo (kilosu 25 pound)
? He drives at 60 kilometres an hour.
? We eat three times a day.
8. Her a/an teklik ifade etmez. Bazı kombinasyonlarla çokluk ifade ederler. Yandaki hiçbir yapı teklik belirtmez. A few, a little, a lot of, a great deal of, a great many of, a couple of
? I saw a couple of my friends, in the city centre yesterday. One of them was married whereas the other two ones were not.
9. Bazı rakamlardan önce one (=bir) anlamında. A hundred, a thousand, a million, a third (1/3)
( one is also possible but “a” is more common)
10. Bazı hastalıklarda ? He cought a cold.
? I have a headhache.
11. Bilinmeyen, tanınmayan isimlerden önce ? A Mr. Smith moved to this flat last month.

1) One million = a million, a third=one third
2) We don’t need a box, we need a container. (a herhangi bir anlamında)
We don’t need one box, we need two boxes. (one bir adet anlamında)
3) “One” bir zaman diliminden önce kullanılırsa, bilinmeyen bir vakti kasteder.
? One day he came early, another day he came late.
? One winter the snow fell early. [A winter the snow fell early (Yanlış)]
? One day, you’ll be sorry since you’ve treated him so badly.
4) One tek başına zamir olarak kullanılabilir ve çoğulu vardır, a/an isimsiz asla kullanılamaz.
? “I need a rental car please?” “Which do you want, this one or those ones?”

THE (Definite article) tekil, çoğul ve sayılamayanları belirtmek için kullanılır.
1. specific (belirli isimlerden önce) ? Ann is in the garden. Ann is in a garden.
? The beds which are in this hotel are comfortable.
? A bed which is offered by a hotel cannot be comfortable.
2. For a second time mentioning ? His car hit a tree. You can still see the mark on the tree.
3. For a unique object (Bir tane ise “the” alır) ? the moon, the earth, the sky, the stars
? but
? The sun is a star.
? The sky, the sea, the ground, the country
? There are millions of stars in space.
? I tried to park my car but the space was too small.
? The possibility of visitors from outer space.
4. Before only, end, beginning etc. ? She is the only one who can speak French round here.
? At the end of this month I may be a professor.
5. before SUPERLATIVE ? The Nile is the longest river in the world.
? You’re my best friend. [You’re my the best friend. (Yanlış)]
6. Before ordinal numbers (first, second, third etc.) ? The first week was the easier.
7. Before same ? Your pullover is the same color as mine.
? These two photographers are the same.
8. Before a singular noun to show a class of ST. ? The small enterpriser is having a difficult time.
? The whale is in a danger of being extinct
9. Before an adjective to mean a class of people. ? The disabled were angry with the new law.
10. the noun of the noun ? The university of the city= the city university
? The university of London =London University
11. özel isimden önce,
(bahsettiğimiz-söz konusu vs. manasında) ? This is the Mr. Smith, whom we talked about yesterday.
12. the comperative…the comperative ? The more you read, the more you learn.
13. the comperative…of two… ? She is the funnier of these two girls.

Özel isimler:
Henry Smith Aile ismi:
The Smiths
President Clinton, Captain James Lakap (birisini kastederken, yalnız):
the President, the Captain
Şehirler, eyaletler, ülkeler, kıtalar:
Ankara, Utah, Mexico,
South America, North America ? kıta
South Africa, West German ? ülke
topluluk ve birlik anlamı taşıyan veya çoğul isimli ülkeler:
the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union
the Netherlands, The Philippines
The___ of ___ şeklindeki yer-ülke isimleri:
the Republic of China
the District of Columbia
Mount Everest Sıradağlar:
the Himalayas
Coney Island Takım adalar:
the British Isles, the Canary Islands
Lake Superior, Lake Van Takım göller:
The Great Lakes
Palm Beach nehirler, denizler, okyanuslar, kanallar, çöller:
the Nile, the Black Sea, the Atlantic Ocean
the Suez Canal, the Sahara Desert
Tek coğrafik noktalar:
the Vatican, the South Pole
Sokak, cadde ve yollar:
Madison Avenue, Wall Street, Second Street Meşhur-tanınmış binalar
the World Trade Center, the Eiffel Tower
Okul konuları, ilmi branşlar
History, mathematics “Cinema”, “theatre” ve “bank” kelimeleriyle
? I often go to the cinema but I have not been to the theatre for years.
Parklar ve meydanlar
Central Park, Broadway, Times Square Hayvanat bahçeleri:
the San Diego Zoo
North, South, East, West
southern Turkey Ülke, şehir, eyalet vs. bölge ve bölümleri:
the Southwest, the West Side, the Middle East
the North Pole, the South of Turkey
Bazı vakitler
İn the evening, in the morning, in the afternoon Bazı vakitler
At noon, at night
Özel isimle başlayan yer adları:
London university, Kennedy Airport Tamlama halindeki yer adları:
the University of London
Time, Newsweek, Life Gazeteler:
the New York Times, the Wall street Journal
Tatil isimleri:
Thanksgiving Day, Memorial Day İstisna:
The Fourth of July
Günler ve aylar:
September, Monday Mevsimler (optional)
(the) Summer
Play football, play soccer Play+muzik enstrümanı
Play the drums, play the piano
English, French Ulus, milliyet:
The English, The French (İngilizler, Fransızlar)
Watch television Radyo
listen to the radio
AYRICA: Müzik grupları-korolar, otel, tren-uçak-gemi, sanat eseri, galeri-müze, sinema-tiyatro-sirk isimleri THE ile kullanılırlar.
The Beatles, the Beach choir, the Hilton, the Titanic, the Concorde, the Mona Lisa, The National Gallery, The British Museum, The Royal Shakespeare (Theatre), The ABC Cinema, The Piccadilly Circus

?EXTRAS: A Japanese=Bir Japon
The Japanese= Japonlar. (Çoğul yüklem alır.)
1. Before meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper) ? I’m going to have lunch.
Hariç: eğer özel bir öğünse veya öğün niteleniyorsa (başına sıfat, sonuna relative clause vs.)
? I’m preparing a special lunch for you.
? I was invited to a dinner given the manager to welcome.
2. Before abstract nouns ? Men fear death.
3. Before plural nouns; to refer to a class of this ? I hate cars. I like bicycles instead.
4. Before “home” (home “the” almaz.) ? He is at home. He went home.
Fakat, isim nitelenmişse durum değişir
? We arrived at the bride’s home.
? The orphanage was the only home we had ever known.
5. Before work (office anlamındaysa) ? He is on his way to work.
? He is on his way to the office.
6. By taxi, by car, by train, by air, on foot ? I went to work by taxi.
? I went to work in a taxi.
7. On air ? Now you are on air. (Şimdi yayındasınız)
8. Bed, Church, Court, Hospital, Prison, School, College, University

(Bu isimler varoluş amaçlarına uygun bir aktiviteye maruz kalıyorlarsa “the” almazlar. Dolayısıyla article’lı ve article’sız halinin anlamları değişir.) ? I went to bed early last night. (yatak uyumak için kullanıldığında)
? I couldn’t reach the bed to take the knife on it. (yatak uyumak için kullanılmadığında)
? -I went to hospital. –Oh, what’s the matter? Are you well?
? -I went to the hospital. –For what reason?

my, your, his, her, its, your, our, their, Mehmet’s, the Smiths’

This, that
(tekil ve sayılamayanlar için) This apple, that tea
these, those
(çoğullar için) These people.
Those Japanese

THE QUANTIFIERS (Miktar Belirticiler)
1) İsimden once gelirler.
2) Geldikleri ismin çoğul, tekil yada sayılamayan olmasına göre yüklem alırlar.
3) Bazı niceleyiciler her zaman “of” ile kullanılırlar.
a couple of books (bir çift/bir-kaç kitap)
a majority of (the/my/these) books (Bu kitapların bir çoğunluğu)
a number of books (bir sürü kitap) plural
a lot of / lots of books / milk (bir sürü kitap/süt)
plenty of books / milk (bol miktarda kitap/süt) plural / uncountable
A good deal of milk (çok miktarda süt)
A great deal of milk (çok miktarda süt)
A great amount of milk (çok miktarda süt) uncountable

4) Bazı niceleyiciler of’lu ve of’suz kullanılma özelliğine sahiptirler. Bunlar of’lu iken zamirdirler.
All (of) my books / milk
Both (of) my books
Half (of) my books / milk / apple All books plural/uncountable
Both books plural
Half an hour/my books/this milk plural/singular/uncountable
Several of these books
Few of these books
A few of these books
Many of these books
Most of these books
Each of these books
Neither of these two books
Either of these two books
Some of these books
Any of these books
None of my books/milk plural/uncountable Several books plural
Few books plural
A few books plural
Many books plural
Most books plural
Each apple singular
Neither apple singular
Either apple singular
Some books plural
Any books plural
No book / milk / apple plural/singular/uncountable
A little of this milk
Little of this milk
Much of this milk A little milk uncountable
Little milk uncountable
Much milk uncountable

NOTE 1: Kendilerinden sonra gelen of’la birleşirken Possessive/demonstritive adjective/definite article’lardan birisi kullanılmalı. (of+my/this/the)
? Some of the people (not some of people or some the people)
? Most of these people (not most of people or most these people)
? None of my teachers (not none of teachers or none my people)

NOTE 2: Bu quantifier’larda of ile sadece belirlenmiş isimler nicelenir. Tüm cins nicelenmek istendiğinde of’lu yapı kullanılmaz.
? Some people (bazı insanlar) some of my people (halkımın bir kısmı)
? most people (çoğu insan) Most of these people (bu insanların çoğu)
? no teachers (hiçbir öğretmen) None of my teachers (öğretmenlerimin hiçbirisi)
? all milk (tüm sütler) all of the mik (sütün tamamı)

5) Bazı niceleyiciler hiçbir zaman of almaz.
No milk/apple/books
Many an apple ? No milk can be found round here. (no one of yapılarak olur)
? Every teacher can solve such a problem. (every one of yapılarak olur)
? Many a man has died in the battle. (Epey bir adam savaşta öldü)
6) Niceleyicilerin başlarındaki “a” onları tekil yapamaz. Niceledikleri ismin durumuna göre yüklem tekil veya çoğul olur.
? We have a lot of milk.
? A couple of people have asked you.

7) Bazı niceleyiciler sadece tekil isimlerle kullanılırlar.
one apple
neither apple
either apple
each apple
every apple
many a(n) = a large number of Many a good man has been destroyed by alcoholic drink.
Karizmatik Bazıları sadece çoğullarla kullanılırlar.
two, three, etc
few / (quite) a few
a couple of
a (large) number of
several several books (birkaç kitap)
(a great/good) many
9) Bazıları sadece sayılamayanlarla.
A little/little
A good/great deal of [a…deal of]
A vast quantity of [a…quantity of]
A great/large amount of [a…amount of] A little/little milk (biraz/az süt)
Much milk (çok süt)
A good/great deal of milk (çok bol miktarda süt)
A vast quantity of milk (çok bol miktarda süt)
A great/huge/large amount of milk (çok bol miktarda süt)
10) Bazıları hem sayılamayan hem de çoğullarla kullanılır.
None of
A lot of / lots of
Plenty of None of the milk/books
Some milk/books
Any milk/books
A lot of/lots of milk/books
Most milk/books
All milk/books
Plenty of milk/books
11) Bazıları hem sayılamayan hem çoğul hem de tekillerle kullanılır.
all (informal, gramerce yanlış) No milk/books/apple
Half of the milk/books/apple
All of the milk/books
11) Bazıları yanlarında isim olmaksızın tek başlarına zamir olarak kullanılabilirler. Bkz madde 4. Bazıları daha çok nesne konumunda bulunur: a lot / lots, none
? Some cars have four doors, but some have two. (…some of them have two)
? A few of the shops were open but most were closed. (…most of them were closed.)
? Half of this money is mine, and half is yours. (…half of it is yours.)

12) Üçü kendisinden sonra “of” kullanmaksızın the/this/my ‘lı cümlelerle birleşebilir.
? All (of) the money Both (of) the teachers. Half (of) these people.

A few and few – a little and little
1) (a) little ? sayılamayan isimler (uncountable) (a) few ? çoğulk isimler (plural)
2) a little = biraz [olumlu] little = (çok) az [olumsuz]
? There is a little time before the train leaves. Let’s go and drink something.
? There is little time to finish this project. We can never finish it in time.
3) a few = bir kaç few = (çok) az
? I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often.
? I’m very bored here. I have few friends to talk and they are boring.
NOTE 1: Olumsuz anlam ile kastedilen nitelenenden isimden az miktarda olduğudur. Yoksa anlam pozitif olabilir.
? She is lucky. She has few problems. (Şanslı. Çok az problemi var.)
? I have a few problems. Things are not going so well for me. (Biraz problemim var. İşler benim için çok iyi gitmiyor.)
4) zamir olarak da kullanılır (alone, without a noun)
? Many are called, but few are chosen.
? Very little is known about him.
? Do you speak English? – A little (biraz,konuşabilirim) / Little (çok az, konuşamam)
? Do you have some biscuits? – A few (biraz, sana verebilirim). / Few. (çok az sana veremem)
5) of + my, this, the kuralına dikkat
? A few of his visitors left early. (A few his visitors.)
? Few of Picasso’s pictures are good. (Few Picasso’s pictures)
? Can I take a little of this sugar? (a little this sugar)
? Little of the original building has survived. (Little the original building)
extra: “little” aynı zamanda küçük anlamında bir sıfattır.
? A little girl wants to see you. (Küçük bir kız sizi görmek istiyor.)
extra: “the few” az miktarda insan, birkaç kişi anlamına gelen bir zamirdir.
? Real power belongs to the few. (Gerçek güç az miktarda insana aittir.)
? She was one of the chosen few. (O kız seçilmiş birkaç kişiden biriydi)

A couple of (=a few)
1) Bir çift anlamı yanında bir kaç kişi anlamına da gelir.
? I need a couple of eggs (=two eggs) for this.
? We’re going out to a restaurant with a couple of friends (=a few friends).
2) Belirli bir isimde niceleme yaptığında the/my/these kullanılır.
? A couple of my friends;
NOTE : Couple aynı zamanda çift, hayat arkadaşı gibi anlamlara gelir.
? a married couple a partner couple

Some and Any
1) some = in positive sentences, for plural and uncountable
any = in negative sentences and questions, for plural and uncountable
? We bought some flowers/sugar
? We didn’t buy any flowers/sugar.
? He’s busy. He’s got some work to do.
? He’s lazy. He never does any work.
? Do we have any flowers/sugar?

Sorularda çoğunlukla any kullanılır.
Have you got any luggage? No, I haven’t.
Has anybody seen my bag? Yes, it is under the table.

Some : Fakat beklenen cevap yes ise veya eğer soruda rica veya davet var ise some kullanılır. (request, encouraging or giving an invitation)
Would you like something to eat? (teklif, offer)
Can I have some sugar, please? (rica, request)
Could I have some books, please?
Why don't you take some books home with you?
Would you like some books?

NOTE 1: Some ve any’nin –body, -thing, –one ve -where kombinasyonları da any ve some’ın dahil olduğu kurallara dahildirler.
? I’m hungry. I want something to eat.
? I’m not hungry. I don’t want anything to eat.
? There’s somebody at the door.
? There isn’t anybody at the door.
? Has anyone seen my glasses anywhere?

NOTE 2: Manayı olumsuzlaştıran bazı preposition, zarf, fiil ve sıfatlarda any kullanılır.
? We went out without any money.
barely, hardly, never, rarely, scarcely, seldom
? Hardly anybody passed the examination.(Hemen hiçkimse sınavı geçmedi)
deny, fail, prohibit, refuse, etc
? He refused to eat anything. (=He didn’t accept to eat anything)
impossible, unlikely:
? It is impossible to see any good view in this city.
If clause
? If there are any letters for me, can you send them on this address?
? If anyone has any questions, I’ll be pleased to answer them.
? Let me know if you need anything.
Manada koşulluk varsa;
? I’m sorry for any trouble I’ve caused. (=If I have caused any trouble I am sorry) (Neden olduğum herhangi bir problem varsa özür dilerim)

2) any + singular (positive cümlelerde): hangisi olursa olsun anlamında (herhangi bir…)
? You can catch any bus. They all go to the theatre.
? “Which sang shall I sing?” “Any song. I don’t mind.”
? Come and see me any time you want.
? Any of the students could have answered this question.
3) some + singular/plural person: kim olduğu belli değil. (-‘nın biri, birtakım…)
? Some kind person sent me those flowers. (Kibar adamın biri bana bu çiçekleri göndermiş)
? Some woman just stole my purse. (Kadının biri demin cüzdanımı çaldı)
? Some people were playing ball. (Birtakım insanlar dışarıda top oynuyorlardı)
NOTE : Some ayrıca aşağıdaki anlamlarda da kullanılır.
? Some people don’t like tea. (Bazı insanlar çay sevmezler)
? The talks went on at some length. (Görüşmeler epey sürdü.) [adv]
? You must run some to catch up. (Yetişmek için epey koşmalısın) [adv]
? Some ten people were hired. (Yaklaşık on insan tutuldu.) [adv]
4) somebody / anybody ve someone / anyone tekil yüklem, çoğul zamir (they/them/their etc) alırlar.
? Someone has forgotten their umbrella. (Birileri şemsiyesilerini unutmuş)
? If anybody wants to leave early, they can. (Ayrılmak isteyenler varsa, ayrılabilirler)
NOTE: of + my/the/this kuralına dikkat
? Some of my parents. Any of your food.
? Some of parents (Yanlış) Any of food (Yanlış)
? Some my parents (Yanlış) Any your food (Yanlış)
No and None (No vs Any)
1) no, nothing, nobody, none of… kullanılan cümlede –not- yer almaz. Any kullanılan cümlede aynı anlamı karşılamak için –not- eklenmelidir.
? I did not say anything = I said nothing.
? We haven’t got any money = We have got no money.
? The station isn’t anywhere near here. = It is nowhere near here.
2) none = no one demektir. Ancak no one sadece sayılabilenlerle kullanılırken, none sayılamayanlarla da kullanılır. No one of ise sadece çoğullarla kullanılır.
? None of your friends No one of your fiends. (doğru)
? None of this money no one of this money (yanlış)
? “How much money have you got?” “None.” (no one değil)
? "I'd like some more cheese." "I'm sorry there's none left". (no one değil)
3) None of’tan sonra çoğul bir isim geldiğinde yüklem tekil de çoğul da olabilir. Ancak sayılamayan isim geldiğinde sadece tekil isim kullanılır. [None of + my books are/is]
? None of the shops were/was open.
? None of my children has/have blonde hair.
? None of your money is able to help me. (Her zaman tekil, zira money bir SAYILAMAYAN isimdir)
4) “Nobody” ve “no one” tekil yüklem, ancak çoğul zamir (they/their/them etc) ister.
? Nobody phoned, did they?
? Is there nobody here who can answer my question?
? No one in the class has done their homework.
5) None zamir olarak kullanılabilir. (Alone, without noun)
? She searched the shelves for books on yoga, but could find none. (=NO ONE)
? She went to the shop to get some oranges but they had none. (=NO ONE)
6) "no of” diye bir kullanım yoktur, yerine “none of” kullanılır.
? None of your friends no of your friends (Yanlış)
Much and Many
1) Much, sayılamayan (uncountable), many ise çoğul (plural) isimlerle kullanılır, çokluk belirtirler. Normalde soru cümlelerinde ve olumsuz cümlelerde yer alırlar. Olumlularda yerlerine a lot of veya lots of kullanılır. Ancak resmi (formal) ifadelerde olumlu cümlelerde de kullanılmaktadırlar.
? Many people eat too much meat.
2) Much of + tekil isim (singular noun) büyük bir kısmı (a large part of ) anlamına gelir.
? Much of the national park was destroyed in the fire. (Milli Parkın büyük bir kısmı yangında mahvoldu)
3) Ardından isim gelmeksizin de zamir olarak kullanılırlar (Alone, without noun)
? Many have argued that she is the finest poet of her generation.
? Much remains to be done before the drug can be used with humans.
4) of+the/my/this kuralına dikkat
? Many of the delegates voted the policy. (Many the delegates…)
extra 1: a great many = very many
? I have known her for a great many years. (Onu epey çok bir zamandır tanıyorum)
extra 2: the many = the majority (çoğunluk)
? A government which improves conditions for the many (koşulları çoğunluk için geliştiren bir hükümet)
Such and So
so sıfat ve zarfları, such ise isimleri nitelemek için kullanılır. Ancak herhangi bir isim many/much/few/ little ile nitelenmişse burada so kullanılır.
[so + many/much/few/little + Noun]
? I haven’t eaten so much food before.
? I don’t want to take so many cars nowadays.
? I haven’t seen such a bike before. (Daha önce böylesi bir bisiklet görmemiştim)
? I haven’t seen such cars before. (Daha önce böyle arabalar görmemiştim)
? I have never met such a beautiful girl before. (Daha önce bu kadar güzel bir kızla karşılaşmamıştım)
? I have never worked so hard before. (Daha önce asla bu kadar sıkı çalışmamıştım)
too adj a noun
? She is so beautiful. (O kadar güzelki-Çok güzel)
? He was so good a man. (O kadar iyi bir adamdı ki..)
A Lot of / Lots of and Plenty of
1) Her üçü de hem sayılamayan hem de çoğullar ile kullanılır, a lot of / lots of çokluk, plenty of bolluk (more than enough) belirtir. (a lot of, lots of ile kıyaslandığında daha resmi=formaldır.)
? A lot of luck lots of time plenty of money
? A lot of friends lots of people plenty of ideas
2) “lots” veya “a lot” şeklinde zamir olarak (genellikle cümle sonunda) veya yüklem sonrasında zarf olarak kullanılırlar. (Alone, without a noun) plenty de zamir olarak kullanılır.
? I have had plenty to eat. I don’t want any more.
? “Have you got any small nails?” “Yes. I have got a lot lots” (pron)
? I care a lot about you. (Seni çok umursuyorum) (adv) [a lot=very much]
? Thanks a lot for your help. (Yardımların için çok sağol) (adv) [a lot=very much]
extra: the lot/the whole lot = tamamı, bir bütün olarak anlamında bir isimdir.
? Get out of my house, the lot of you! (Defolun evimden, hepiniz!)
? She has a got a PC, colour printer, scanner –the lot. (Bir PC’si var, renkli yazıcı, tarayıcı; yani bir bütün)
All, Both and Half - All vs the Whole
1) all ? plural, uncountable the whole ? singular
? All cars have wheels.(tekerlek)
? All (of) the milk has finished by someone.
? The whole of the field was flooded.(not all of the field…but getting common.)
2) Both, all ve half belirlenmiş bir ismi (themythis almış) nitelerken “of” ile veya “of”suz olabilirler.
? All (of) my friends. Half (of) this money. Both (of) the sentences.
half of Them
Ancak nitenen şey nesne konumunda bir zamirse (them, us etc) “of” kullanılmalıdır.
? All of us like you.(doğru) All us like you. (yanlış)
? Half of them appreciate the thing you have done. (not Half them appreciate…)
3) Kendisinden sonra relative clause geliyorsa; all=everything veya all=the only thing anlamına gelir.
? I don’t agree all that she said.(everything) (Söylediği herşeyle hemfikir değilim.)
? All she wants to do is help. (Yapmak istediği tek şey yardım idi.)
4) whole+plural name cümleye bir kısmı tamamıyla anlamı katar.
? All of the towns had their electricity cut off. (Bölgedeki tüm kasabaların elektriği kesildi)
? After the storm, whole towns were left without electricity. (Fırtınadan sonra, bazı kasabalar tamamıyla elektriksiz kaldı)
5) Aşağıdaki alternatif both ve all kullanım şekillerine dikkat
a) All ve both mid position’da bulunuyorsa, özneyi niteliyordur.
? We are all going to Athens during the vacation. (All of us are…)
? Do you all want this cake? (Do all of you…)
? They have both finished their dinner. (Both of them have finished…)
? Are you both going to the conference? (Are both of you…)
b) All ve both of almaksızın the/my/this grubuyla kulanılabilirler ama bu gruptan önce gelmelidirler.
? All their hard work had been of no use. (not Their all hard work…)
? All these inventions are my products. (not These all inventions…)
? Both your sisters love you. (not Your both sisters…)
? Both these two brothers are married. (not These both two brothers…)
c) All ve both zamirden sonra gelerek onu niteleyebilirler.
? People will want to see them all. (…see all of them)
? I went on holiday with them both. (…with both of them.)
Both / Neither / Either
1) Her zaman iki şey için kullanılırlar:
? Both restaurants are very good.
? Neither restaurant is expensive.
? We can go to either restaurant.
2) (neithereither) +of+ (themythis) + plural Noun (her zaman iki tane kastedilir)
? Neither of the restaurants we went to waswere expensive.
? These are two types of qualification. Either of them is acceptable.
3) Zamir olarak kullanılırlar. (Alone without a noun)
? Which do you want? Both neither either
4) either, neither, both ?2 şey, buna karşılık aynı anlamda any, none, all ? 2’den fazla şey
? There are two good hotels in the town. You can stay at either of them. (not…any of them)
? There are many good hotels in the town. You can stay at any of them. (not…either of them)
? We tried two hotels. Neither of them had any rooms. Both of them were full. (not…none of them) (not…all of them)
? We tried a lot of hotels. None of them had any rooms. All of them were full. (not…neither of them) (not…both of them)
5) Paralel yapılar: Bu tür yapılarda ilk ne tür bir yapı gelmişse, daha sonra da aynı tür gelmelidir. (both+noun+…and+noun veya both+adj…and+adj gibi)

hem…hem de Both Ann and Tom were late.
I was both tired and hungry when I arrived.
ne…ne de Neither Liz nor Robin came to the party.
Neither my sister nor my brothers like chocolate.
Neither my brothers nor my sister likes chocolate.
She said she would contact me but she neither writed to me nor phoned.
Either… or…
Ya…ya da… I’m not sure where he’s from. He’s either Spanish or French.
Either you apologize or I’ll never speak to you again.

Each / Every
1) each/every ?her ikisi de singular noun ve singular verb
? Each/every time I see you, you look different. (Seni her gördüğümde farklı gözüküyorsun)
? There is a phone in every/each room of the house. (Evin her/her bir odasında bir telefon var)
2) each of +mythethis+noun ancak “every of” diye birşey yok. Bunun yerine every one kullanılır.
? Each of the books has a different color. (Herbir kitabın ayrı bir rengi var)
? Every one of the books has a different color.
Each of them you us etc.
Every one of them you us etc.
3) Each her zaman nitelediği isimden önce gelmez. Özneyi nitelerken yüklem öncesinde veya cümle sonunda gelebilir. Ancak bu kez nitelediği isim çoğuldur. “Every” bu şekilde kullanılamaz.
? Each student was given a book.
? The students were each given a book.
? The students were given a book each. ? Each orange costs 25 pense.
? These oranges each cost 25 pense.
? These oranges costs 25 pense each.

4) Every bir şeyin ne kadar sık gerçekleştiğini ifade etmek için çoğul ifadelerle kullanılır:
? The buses go every ten minutes. (Otobüsler her on dakikada bir kalkarlar)
? We had to stop every ten miles. (Her on milde bir mola vermek zorunda kaldık.)
? One in every three marriages ends in divorce. (Her üç evlilikten biri boşanmayla sonuçlanıyor)
Extra: every other: birinci, üçüncü, beçinci vs… ama ikinci, dördüncü, altıncı vs… değil.
? Every other day: gün aşırı (iki günde bir) every other week: bir hafta değil bir hafta (iki haftada bir)
A Number of vs. The Number of
the number of = sayısı anlamına gelirken, a number of çoğullardan önce kullanılır, çokluk belirtir.
? A number of people have just gone to Paris from Adana by air. (Bir sürü insan hava yoluyla Adana’dan Parise demin geldi.)
? The number of the people who went to Paris from Adana are not known yet. (Adana’dan Paris’e giden insanların sayısı henüz bilinmiyor.)

Kaynak: http://bilgiver.blogcu.com

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